Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic disease characterized by functional disorders of the digestive system (small and large intestine).
The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome is not fully understood. Many factors are involved in the development of this disease.
- visceral hypersensitivity – there is an increased sensitivity to pain in the digestive tract; even a normal amount of gas in the intestine can cause bloating or a feeling of pressure with a small filling of the rectum with feces;
- bowel motility disorders – excessive intestinal peristalsis causes diarrhea and stool closure is slowed down;
- intestinal infections – there is a link between infectious intestinal disease and the subsequent development of irritable bowel syndrome;
- psychological factors – anxiety, depression and stress can occur, which negatively affects intestinal peristalsis and increases pain;
The main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are abdominal pain and disturbances in the frequency and quality of bowel movements. Abdominal pain is of varying intensity and most commonly affects the lower abdomen. There is diarrhea and / or constipation. Another important symptom of irritable bowel syndrome is abdominal discomfort in the form of bloating. These diseases are not due to organic changes in the abdominal cavity.
Symptoms that appear and last for three months determine the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. Of course, this requires consultation with a physician to rule out other serious illnesses. A thorough interview is very important in the diagnosis. Physicians can use criteria for this disease, such as the Manning criteria.
- abdominal pain and / or discomfort that passes or less after defecation
- change in the frequency of bowel movements
- feeling of incomplete bowel movement, pressure on stool
- change in stool consistency
- abdominal gas
- mucus secretion
- alternating diarrhea – constipation
- pain – tension
Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome includes medication, diet, and psychotherapy. In the case of pharmacology, these are most often antispasmodics, anti-diarrheal drugs, laxatives, antidepressants, antibiotics or probiotics that favorably alter the intestinal flora.
When it comes to the psychological sphere, e.g. cognitive-behavioral therapy, relaxation techniques, yoga, pilates.
The diet should be based on the exclusion of products that are individually intolerant to the patient. Most often, these are dairy, fatty and puffed products such as cabbage, onions, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts or legumes such as peas, beans, beans. A sick person should avoid coffee, strong tea and even some spices. You have to give up hard-to-digest and puffy fruits: pears, plums, apricots, cherries.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a social, medical and economic problem. Undoubtedly, this disease has a negative impact on the quality of life of a person struggling with their illnesses.
Muszyński J., editor (s), Gastroenterology,